An English Dictionary of Runic Inscriptions in the Younger Futhark
*Runes and Runic
Inscriptions FAQs
Contact Us
*
Home

News

About the project

The dictionary

Search the dictionary

Acknowledgements

Links

Abbreviations

Bibliography

*

Abbreviations:

Definition

?uncertain.
AEWVRIES, Jan de. 1961. Altnordisches etymologisches Wörterbuch. Leiden.
AG NOREEN, Adolf. 1904. Altschwedische Grammatik. Sammlung kurzer Grammatiken germanischer Dialekte 7. Altnordische Grammatik 2. Halle.
ANF Arkiv for nordisk Filologi[vols 1–4]; Arkiv för nordisk filologi [vols 5–].
A-SD BOSWORTH, Joseph, and T. Northcote TOLLER. 1972. An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary. Ed. And enlarged by Alistair CAMPBELL. Oxford.
Da. Danish (modern).
DÆDSO LUND, G. F. V. 1877. Det ældste danske Skriftsprogs Ordforråd. Copenhagen.
Das Runenwörterbuch DIETERICH, Udo Waldemar. 2004 [reprint of 1844]. Das Runenwörterbuch. Abstammung und Begriffsbildung der ältesten Sprachdenkmäler Skandinaviens. Wiesbaden.
dial. dialect.
Far. Faroese (modern).
FO POULSEN, Hendrik W., et al., eds. 1998. Føroysk orðabók. Tórshavn.
Fv Fornvännen.
GG BRØNDUM-NIELSEN, Johannes. 1932–1974. Gammeldansk Grammatik. 8 vols [1. Indledning. Tekstkildernes Lydbetegnelse. Vokalisme (1950; 2nd edn); 2. Konsonantisme (1932) + Tilføjelser og Rettelser (1957); 3. Substantivernes Deklination (1935); 4. Adjektiver. Adverbier. Numeralier (1992); 5. Pronominer (1965); 6. Verber I. De stærke Verber (1971a); 7. De svage Verber. De præteritopræsentiske Verber (1971b); 8. Verber III. Konjugationsformernes Udvikling (1974)]. Copenhagen.
GLRBP SOPHOCLES, E. A. 1900. Greek Lexicon of the Roman and Byzantine Periods (from B. C. 146 to A. D. 1100). New York.
Heggstad HEGGSTAD, Leiv, Finn HØDNEBØ and Erik SIMENSEN. 1975. Norrøn ordbok. Oslo.
Ice. Icelandic (modern).
IEW JÓHANNESSON, Alexander. 1951–56. Isländisches etymologisches Wörterbuch. Berne.
ÍO MAGNÚSSON, Ásgeir Blöndal. 1989. Íslensk orðsifjabók. Reykjavík.
Kalkar KALKAR, Otto. 1976. Ordbog til det ældre danske Sprog (1300–1700). Reprint. 6 vols [1. A–F; 2. G–L; 3. M–Sl; 4. Sm–Ø; 5. A–Ø (Suppl.); 6. Marie Bjerrum, Otto Kalkar og hans ordbog; Kilder og hjælpemidler; Efterskrift]. Copenhagen.
KLNM KARKER, Allan, et al., eds. 1956–78. Kulturhistorisk leksikon for nordisk middelalder fra vikingetid til reformationstid. 22 vols [1. Abbed–blide (1956); 2. Blik–data (1957); 3. Datering–epiphania (1958); 4. Epistolarium–frälsebonde (1959); 5. Frälsebrev–gästgiveri (1960); 6. Gästning–hovedgård (1961); 7. Hovedstad–judar (1962); 8. Judas–konfiskation (1963); 9. Konge–kyrkorummet (1964); 10. Kyrkorätt–Ludus de Sancto Canuto (1965); 11. Luft–motståndsrätt (1966); 12. Mottaker–orlogsskib (1967); 13. Ormer–regnbue (1968); 14. Regnebræt–samgäld (1969); 15. Samisk språk–skude (1970); 16. Skudehandel–stadsskatter (1971); 17. Stadskole–sätesgård (1972); 18. Sätesgårdsnamn–Tryygor (1974); 19. Trylle–vidisse (1975); 20. Vidjer–Øre (1976); 21. Øremerke–Øyreting (1977); 22. Register (1978)]. Copenhagen.
KVHAAH Kungliga Vitterhets Historie och Antikvitets Akademiens Handlingar.
Lat. Latin.
LP JÓNSSON, Finnur, ed. 1916. Lexicon Poeticum. Copenhagen.
Nn. Nynorsk. Neo-Norwegian.
NO HELLEVIK, Alf, et al. 1966–. Norsk ordbok. Ordbok over det norske folkemålet og det nynorske skriftmålet. Oslo.
Nordisk runnamnslexikon PETERSON, Lena. 2002. Nordisk runnamnslexikon; http://www.sofi.se; Internet
ODa. Old Danish.
ON Old Norse-Icelandic.
ONF NIELSEN, Karl Martin. 1942. ‘Ord- og navneforråd’, in Jacobsen and Moltke, II, cols 625–748.
ONP DEGNBOL, Helle, et al., eds. 1989–. Ordbog over det norrøne prosasprog. A Dictionary of Old Norse Prose. Vols 0– [0. Registre (1989); 1–2. Nøgle // Key (2000) 1. a–bam (1995); 2. ban–da (2000); de–em (2004)]. Copenhagen.
OSM SÖDERWALL, Knut Fredrik. 1884–1918. Ordbok öfver svenska medeltids-språket. 3 vols [1. A–L (1884–1918); 2: 1. M–T (1891–1900); 2: 2. TH–Ö (1900–18)]. SFSS Ser. 1, 27.
SÖDERWALL, Knut Fredrik, Walter ÅKERLUND, and Karl Gustav LJUNGGREN. 1925–53. Ordbok öfver svenska medeltids-språket. Supplement A–N. SFSS Ser. 1, 54: 1.
SÖDERWALL, Knut Fredrik, Walter ÅKERLUND, Karl Gustav LJUNGGREN and Elias WESSÉN. 1954–73. Ordbok öfver svenska medeltids-språket. Supplement O–Ö. SFSS Ser. 1, 54: 2.
OSw. Old Swedish.
Runverser BRATE, Erik, and Sophus BUGGE. 1887–91. Runverser. Antiqvarisk tidskrift för Sverige 10.
Schlyter SCHLYTER, C. J. 1877. Ordbok till Samlingen af Sweriges Gamla Lagar. Corpus Iuris Sueo-Gotorum Antiqui 13. Lund.
SFSS Svenska Fornskriftssällskapets Samlingar.
SR Sveriges runinskrifter.
SRR PETERSON, Lena. 1994. Svenskt runordsregister. 2nd edn. Runrön 2. Uppsala.
Sv. Ljud. KOCK, Axel. 1906–29. Svensk ljudhistoria. 5 vols [1. Vokalism (1906); 2. [Vokalism] (1909–11); 3. [Vokalism] (1916–20); 4. [Vokalism] (1921); 5. [Vokalism] + Register by Walter Åkelund (1923–29)]. Lund.
Sw. Swedish (modern).
VEPN PARSONS, David N., et al., eds. 1997-. The Vocabulary of English Place-Names. Nottingham.

Grammatical information

1 first person.
2 second person.
3 third person.
acc. accusative.
act. active (voice).
adj. adjective.
adv. adverb.
art. article.
aux. auxiliary.
card. cardinal.
comp. comparative.
conj. conjunction.
dat. dative.
dem. demonstrative.
enclit. enclitic.
explet. expletive.
f. feminine.
gen. genitive.
imper. imperative.
impers. impersonal.
indef. indefinite.
indic. indicative (mood).
inf. infinitive.
interr. interrogative.
m. masculine.
n. noun.
neg. negative.
nom. nominative.
nt. neuter.
num. numeral.
obl. oblique.
ord. ordinal.
partic. particle.
pass. passive (voice).
past part. past participle.
pers. personal.
pl. plural.
poss. possessive.
prep. preposition.
pres. present tense.
pres. part. present participle.
pret. preterite tense.
pron. pronoun.
refl. reflexive.
rel. relative.
sg. singular.
subj. subjunctive.
sup. superlative.
v. verb.

Inscription

$ new reading and/or interpretation
? all normalized forms in the inscription are uncertain
° inscription does not contain any runes, but only ornamentation
inscription has been lost
a instance when more than one runic inscription appears on a page of an article
b instance when more than one runic inscription appears on a page of an article
c instance when more than one runic inscription appears on a page of an article
d instance when more than one runic inscription appears on a page of an article
M inscription is from the medieval period
SENTIDA inscription is from later than the medieval period
U inscription is pre-Viking Age
V inscription is from the Viking age

Transliteration

- symbol (usually a rune) that cannot be interpreted, but number of symbol(s) is clear
( ) a damaged rune that can be interpreted with some certainty
(?) normalized form of word is uncertain
/ alternative rune-forms where interpretation is unclear
[ ] supplemented text, where words can be supplemented with some certainty
| rune that has been read twice
< > runes that cannot be interpreted, but where the runes are otherwise clear to read
= bind rune
§A side A of runic inscription
§B side B of runic inscription
§C side C of inscription
§D side D of inscription
parts of the inscription are missing or uninterpretable and the number of missing runes is uncertain
P variant reading concerning more than a single word
Q variant reading concerning more than a single word
R variant reading concerning more than a single word
S variant reading concerning more than a single word
*
*

Page last updated:
23 March 2006

Site maintained by:
Sheila.Jones